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Types of Periodontal Disease

Periodontal disease (also known as periodontitis and gum disease) is a progressive disease which affects the supporting and surrounding tissue of the gums, and also the underlying jawbone. If left untreated, periodontal disease can result in loose, unstable teeth, and even tooth loss. Periodontal disease is in fact the leading cause of tooth loss in adults in the developed world and should not be taken lightly.

Periodontal disease begins when the toxins found in plaque start to attack the soft or gingival tissue surrounding the teeth. This bacterium embeds itself in the gum and rapidly breeds, causing a bacterial infection. As the infection progresses, it starts to burrow deeper into the tissue causing inflammation or irritation between the teeth and gums. The response of the body is to destroy the infected tissue, which is why the gums appear to recede. The resulting pockets between the teeth deepen and, if no treatment is sought, the tissue which makes up the jawbone also recedes causing unstable teeth and tooth loss.

Types of Periodontal Disease

There are many different varieties of periodontal disease, and many ways in which these variations manifest themselves. All require immediate treatment by a periodontist to halt the progression and save the gum tissue and bone.

Here are some of the most common types of periodontal disease along with the treatments typically performed to correct them:

Gingivitis

Gingivitis is the mildest and most common form of periodontitis. It is caused by the toxins in plaque and leads to periodontal disease. People at increased risk of developing gingivitis include pregnant women, women taking birth control pills, people with uncontrolled diabetes, steroid users and people who control seizures and blood pressure using medication.

Treatment: Gingivitis is easily reversible using a solid combination of home care and professional cleaning. The dentist may perform root planing and deep scaling procedures to cleanse the pockets of debris. A combination of antibiotics and medicated mouthwashes may be used to kill any remaining bacteria and promote the good healing of the pockets.

Chronic Periodontal Disease

Chronic periodontal disease is the most common form of the disease, and occurs much more frequently in people over 45. Chronic periodontal disease is characterized by inflammation below the gum line and the progressive destruction of the gingival and bone tissue. It may appear that the teeth are gradually growing in length, but in actuality the gums are gradually recessing.

Treatment: Unfortunately unlike gingivitis, chronic periodontal disease cannot be completely cured because the supportive tissue cannot be rebuilt. However, the dentist can halt the progression of the disease using scaling and root planing procedures in combination with antimicrobial treatments. If necessary, the periodontist can perform surgical treatments such as pocket reduction surgery and also tissue grafts to strengthen the bone and improve the aesthetic appearance of the oral cavity.

Aggressive Periodontal Disease

Aggressive periodontal disease is characterized by the rapid loss of gum attachment, the rapid loss of bone tissue and familial aggregation. The disease itself is essentially the same as chronic periodontitis but the progression is much faster. Smokers and those with a family history of this disease are at an increased risk of developing aggressive periodontitis.

Treatment: The treatments for aggressive periodontal disease are the same as those for chronic periodontal disease, but aggressive periodontal disease sufferers are far more likely to require a surgical intervention. This form of the disease is harder to halt and treat, but the dentist will perform scaling, root planing, antimicrobial, and in some cases laser procedures in an attempt to save valuable tissue and bone.

Periodontal Disease Relating to Systemic Conditions

Periodontal disease can be a symptom of a disease or condition affecting the rest of the body. Depending on the underlying condition, the disease can behave like aggressive periodontal disease, working quickly to destroy tissue. Heart disease, diabetes and respiratory disease are the most common cofactors, though there are many others. Even in cases where little plaque coats the teeth, many medical conditions intensify and accelerate the progression of periodontal disease.

Treatment: Initially, the medical condition which caused the onset of periodontal disease must be controlled. The dentist will halt the progression of the disease using the same treatments used for controlling aggressive and chronic periodontal disease.

Necrotizing Periodontal Disease

This form of the disease rapidly worsens and is more prevalent among people who suffer from HIV, immunosuppression, malnutrition, chronic stress or choose to smoke. Tissue death (necrosis) frequently affects the periodontal ligament, gingival tissues and alveolar bone.

Treatment: Necrotizing periodontal disease is extremely rare. Because it may be associated with HIV or another serious medical condition, it is likely the dentist will consult with a physician before commencing treatment. Scaling, root planing, antibiotic pills, medicated mouth wash and fungicidal medicines are generally used to treat this form of the disease.

If you have any question or concerns about the different types of periodontal disease and treatments, please ask your dentist.

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Testimonials

All service was great! My dental technician did an excellent cleaning and I love their computer program that shows your potential cavities. I was able to see for myself whether I had problems or not.

I felt like they did not over-recommend things and were supportive of preventative methods and giving teeth the chance to bounce back with proper hygeine before jumping to "You need a filling". I had some questions, and they had no problem answering them

Elle B. , Arlington VA

10 Stars if Possible!
After the cleaning Dr. Cotes came in and he was great as well. He gave me a full dental exam and even took time to explain the clicking I get in my jaw. He gave me multiple options for teeth whitening and even told me the prices so there would be no up front surprises depending on which method I went with. He took the time to answer any question a threw at him and without trying to rush me out for the next patient. Not really sure what Megan S. is talking about in her review but I did see her only other review on the site was negative as well...just sayin...

Overall:
I would give Dr. Cotes and his staff 10 stars if it was possible. Everyone knows going to the Dentist is a crappy process. I didn't think it was this possible to have a decent time at the Dentist Office and be taken care of in a timely manor!!!

Dustin S. , Arlington VA

Dr. Cote is just that good. I was referred to Dr. Cote by a friend at work, and I am SO thankful for that reference. The man is a consummate professional, has a friendly staff and has provided me with nothing short of stellar care for the last year. He explained things to me that my lifelong dentist never took the time to do before (like, how I can proactively strengthen the enamel on my teeth). He's got hi-tech gear that indicated areas where future problems might crop up and he's kept an eye on them during every return visit. I have never felt empowered and reassured in a dentist's office, but Dr. Cote is that good.

Dentistry can be a very personal enterprise, and since I had the same dentist since birth, finding a new dentist in DC was a harrowing experience. I actually walked out of three dentists offices (too sketchy for my tastes) before settling going to Dr. Cote. I live in the District, but I'm willing to suffer the indignity of Pentagon City just to have Dr. Cote take care of my teeth.

Evan M. , Washington DC

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